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    In this TechXchange, you'll find a compendium of articles intended to help you get the most out of your VNA.
    Mid-Range VNA Produces EVM Measurements

    Midrange VNA Delivers Fast, Accurate EVM Measurements

    Jan. 9, 2024
    Keysight's midrange solution accelerates characterization of power-amplifier designs for 5G transmitters and provides modulation distortion analysis with full vector correction...
    Test & Measurement

    What is the 12-Term VNA Calibration Model?

    Nov. 20, 2023
    Learn about the 12-term error model used to characterize systematic errors encountered during VNA measurements.
    Test & Measurement

    Four-Port Single-Sweep VNA Serves D- and G-Band Apps

    Oct. 23, 2023
    Anritsu’s differential vector network analyzer, which can cover from 70 kHz to 220 GHz in a single sweep, is useful for applications such as device modeling and characterization...
    Keysight 1
    Test & Measurement

    Network Analyzer Produces Fast and Accurate EVM Measurements

    Oct. 20, 2023
    Keysight presents its E5081A ENA-X VNA as the only solution that produces fast and accurate EVM measurements on a mid-range network analyzer.
    Ims Samtec Thumbnail

    Test Assemblies Enable SerDes Characterization Out to 90 GHz

    Sept. 28, 2023
    The latest addition to Samtec's Bulls Eye series of test connector systems gives test engineers the ability to characterize 224-Gb/s PAM4 SerDes links.

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    An Introduction to S-Parameter Network Flow Diagrams

    Sept. 27, 2023
    This article introduces S-parameter network flow diagrams and how they may be manipulated to solve real-world problems. Knowledge of network flow diagrams is a prerequisite to...
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    An Introduction to the VNA and Vector Network Analysis

    Sept. 12, 2023
    This article provides a brief tutorial on the vector network analyzer, how it works, and its application.
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    See What Can't Be Seen

    Aug. 16, 2023
    Check out this demo of a modular 5.5-GHz, 2-port VNA that uses time-domain measurements to peer inside of structural elements to find items such as rebar in concrete.
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    RF Demystified: The Different Types of Scattering Parameters

    Sept. 14, 2022
    Development of RF applications relies heavily on S-parameters to describe integral structures and constituent RF components at different frequencies and for different power levels...
    Test & Measurement

    Using a VNA Like a Time-Domain Reflectometer

    July 26, 2022
    While VNA network measurements in the frequency domain help optimize or verify implementation of devices and components, time-domain measurements are effective for analyzing network...
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    Test & Measurement

    Boost In-Situ Reflection Measurement Accuracy with a Portable VNA

    Feb. 9, 2022
    Return loss measurement of a device on the end of a long cable is problematic. This article examines the reason behind that issue and how to mitigate it.
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    Test & Measurement

    Phase Measurements, Calibration Critical in Verifying mmWave Designs

    Aug. 10, 2021
    When mmWave frequencies and greater miniaturization coincide in a DUT, phase measurements and VNA calibration become important elements in device verification.
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    Test & Measurement

    Special Report: Vector Network Analyzers

    March 23, 2021
    Offering a variety of features, from excellent RF characteristics to a wide variety of analysis functions, the latest VNA solutions facilitate the capture and evaluation of important...
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    Test & Measurement

    VNAs Target IoT, Gear Up for 5G

    March 15, 2021
    Vector network analyzers have become essential measurement tools due to the growing presence of the Internet of Things and 5G.
    Test & Measurement

    Special Report: RF/Microwave Test

    March 11, 2021
    Increasing complexity and the need for higher frequencies and bandwidths, multiple channels, low-power operation, and space constraints are placing considerable demands on RF/...
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    Test & Measurement

    One-Port VNA Calibration: A Look Under the Hood

    Jan. 11, 2021
    One-port vector-network-analyzer calibration with three-term error correction is relatively easy to understand. This article introduces a convenient matrix formulation that solves...
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    Test & Measurement

    Determining Resonator Q Factor from Return-Loss Measurement Alone

    May 29, 2020
    Engineers often want to measure the Q factor of a resonator. But did you know you could affordably and accurately determine that Q factor from a return-loss measurement?
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    Test & Measurement

    Why Skew-Matched Coaxial Cables Matter to Signal-Integrity Test and Measurement

    March 17, 2020
    This article explores some common measurement parameters and how skew-matched coaxial assemblies can augment a test setup to boost the accuracy of the overall differential-signal...
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    Test & Measurement

    A New Approach to Over-the-Air Production Test

    Dec. 3, 2019
    Noise sources and peak power meters are the key ingredients in a novel over-the-air test methodology that’s faster and more cost-effective than current techniques.
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    Test & Measurement

    Squeeze More Dynamic Range Out of Your Network Analyzer

    Sept. 27, 2018
    With a focus on reducing the noise floor, this application note explains how to maximize network-analyzer dynamic range.
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    Test & Measurement

    The Wheatstone Bridge: How Does It Impact VNA Measurements?

    July 26, 2018
    One fundamental electrical engineering topic is the Wheatstone bridge, which plays an important role in terms of vector-network-analyzer incident and reflected measurements.
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    Test & Measurement

    Brushing Up on Network Analyzer Fundamentals

    June 28, 2018
    Whether measuring production components or engineering prototypes, today’s versatile network analyzers have become essential tools in the designer’s toolbox.