Timing and synchronization are extremely important aspects of cellular communication networks. Frequency synchronization alone is enough to meet the requirements of older 2G and 3G networks, as well as LTE networks based on frequency-division-duplexing (FDD). However, LTE networks based on time-division-duplexing (TDD), LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) networks, and future 5G networks also require phase synchronization. Utilizing phase synchronization allows for efficient spectrum usage and interference
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