Dreamstime_susan_sheldon
272875076 © Bruno Coelho | Dreamstime.com
291067564 © Antony Rodriguez | Dreamstime.com
280087088 © Yuriy Nedopekin | Dreamstime.com
Dreamstime_Alldma_179533414
Array Dreamstime Alldma 179533414 6335aee73fe2f

When to Combine True Time Delays and Phase Shifters in a Hybrid Beamforming Approach (Download)

Sept. 29, 2022

Read this article online.

Electronically scanned arrays (ESAs) utilize phase shifters (PSs), true time delays (TTDs), or a mix of both to point the summed beam toward the desired direction within an array’s steering angle limits. Adjustable attenuators used for tapering also can be considered as beamforming elements.

This article discusses where and how a tiered approach between TTDs and PSs in the same ESA can be helpful to mitigate some phased-array design challenges.