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When to Combine True Time Delays and Phase Shifters in a Hybrid Beamforming Approach (Download)

Sept. 29, 2022

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Electronically scanned arrays (ESAs) utilize phase shifters (PSs), true time delays (TTDs), or a mix of both to point the summed beam toward the desired direction within an array’s steering angle limits. Adjustable attenuators used for tapering also can be considered as beamforming elements.

This article discusses where and how a tiered approach between TTDs and PSs in the same ESA can be helpful to mitigate some phased-array design challenges.