On-wafer calibration and measurement are underpinning technologies for the development of millimeter-wave (mmWave) integrated planar circuits, which have found homes in a large variety of applications. Prominent examples include wireless backhaul links for 5G mobile networks, automotive radar sensors, space-deployed radiometers for Earth remote sensing, radio astronomy, and more. Accurate on-wafer measurement is critical to the production of high-quality and assured integrated circuits for the above-mentioned applications.
S-parameters are fundamental electrical quantities for the characterization of integrated circuits (ICs). Measurement equipment such as probes working at frequencies up to 1.1 THz are commercially available. However, for a long time, no traceability has been available for on-wafer, S-parameter measurements beyond 110 GHz.