Noise is a phenomena that is fundamental to electronics. Its random and non-deterministic behavior can cause obstacles in the design and characterization of circuitry. There are a variety of noise sources that are dependent upon the medium (e.g., vacuum tubes, solid-state devices, and crystal oscillators). Some of the major noise contributors are thermal, shot, and flicker noise. Essentially, the products of all the noise sources actualize as time-dependent, random fluctuations in amplitude
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