Divide-By-Three ILFDs Operate Beyond 280 GHz

June 24, 2013
Work on frequency dividers has led to G-band (140~220 GHz) and H-band (220~325 GHz) divide by 3 injection locked frequency dividers (ILFDs), which can be used in a millimeter wave PLL.

In millimeter-wave phase-locked loops (PLLs), the following divider chain must meet demanding performance requirements. An injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) can be a good choice for these PLLs for its high input sensitivity, low power, and high speed. In addition to suffering from a limited locking range, however, it is sensitive to process variations. At National Taiwan University, Pin-Hao Feng and Shen-Iuan Liu investigated divide-by-3 ILFDs, proposing one with second-harmonic peaking to enhance the locking range.

Their four divide-by-3 ILFDs are fabricated in 40-nm CMOS technology. A distributed inductor technique is used to enhance both operating frequency and locking range. Among those four dividers, the largest measured locking range is 236.6~245.3 GHz. Operating frequencies reached beyond 280 GHz. All four ILFDs consume 2.97~3.96 mW from a 1.1-V supply, excluding output buffers.

The proposed divide-by-3 ILFDs are realized by a NMOS cross-coupled pair, two injection-locked NMOS transistors, a PMOS current source, and three inductors. To generate the second harmonic, two injection-locked transistors are connected in series and act as the mixers. That harmonic is further enhanced by the addition of a peaking inductor to a parasitic capacitor. To save on area, the researchers found that a rectangular-shaped inductor was a better choice than a square one. Among the products of this research are G-band (140~220 GHz) and H-band (220~325 GHz) divide-by-3 ILFDs, which can be used in a millimeter-wave PLL over 200 GHz for point-to-point applications. See “Divide-by-Three Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers Over 200 GHz in 40-nm CMOS,” IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, Feb. 2013, p. 405.

Sponsored Recommendations

Getting Started with Python for VNA Automation

April 19, 2024
The video goes through the steps for starting to use Python and SCPI commands to automate Copper Mountain Technologies VNAs. The process of downloading and installing Python IDC...

Can I Use the VNA Software Without an Instrument?

April 19, 2024
Our VNA software application offers a demo mode feature, which does not require a physical VNA to use. Demo mode is easy to access and allows you to simulate the use of various...

Introduction to Copper Mountain Technologies' Multiport VNA

April 19, 2024
Modern RF applications are constantly evolving and demand increasingly sophisticated test instrumentation, perfect for a multiport VNA.

Automating Vector Network Analyzer Measurements

April 19, 2024
Copper Mountain Technology VNAs can be automated by using either of two interfaces: a COM (also known as ActiveX) interface, or a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) socket interface...