This analysis of a phase-lock-loop frequency synthesizer highlights the importance of the loop filter in final synthesizer performance, and how to analyze the noise contributions of the synthesizers component parts.
This family of frequency synthesizers features generous output-power levels with low spurious and phase-noise levels and versatile remote-control capabilities, all in compact housings.
Components provided excellent performance 50 years ago. But they have improved electrically along the way, taking advantage of material and manufacturing advances to shave costs and size.
A new generation of digitally controlled variable-gain amplifiers (VGAs) features low noise figures and a broad control range to lower cost and simplify the design of cellular base stations.